Information for Doctors

Are you a DOCTOR looking for more details about our practice?

Thoracic Medicine

Think you might have a breathing disorder or just looking for more information?

Sleep Medicine

Latest News

Often times when we can’t sleep or we feel tired throughout the day, there are common “quick fixes” which we use to help us fall asleep easier and give us an extra boost in the morning. However, some of these habits can often be detrimental to your sleep health, affecting you not just at night, but throughout the day as well.

Read more...
 

New research has found that the less we sleep in midlife, the faster our brains can decline and lead to cognitive impairment in old age.

Read more...
 

“What is happening in YOUR sleep?!? How can you really know? Ever thought of using a sleep app? There are some misunderstandings to what data is relevant when using sleep apps so understanding the limitations are IMPORTANT. "It is always recommended to follow up with a sleep study to be sure nothing is missed. “

Read more...
 

A diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) may raise the risk of osteoporosis, particularly among women or older individuals, according to a new study. OSA is a condition that causes brief interruptions in breathing during sleep. If left untreated, OSA can raise the risk for stroke, cardiovascular disease and heart attacks.  New research shows that OSA may also increase the risk of osteoporosis.

Read more...
 

Insomnia predisposes individuals to increased risk of stroke and this association is profound among young adults – up to eight times greater among insomniacs 18 to 34 years old.  The results of a recent study underscore the clinical importance of identifying and treating insomnia.

Read more...
 

Heavy drinking damages the body in many ways. In addition to liver failure, alcoholics are at a much greater risk of developing pneumonia and life threatening acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), for which there is no treatment. Researchers suspect that alcoholics are more susceptible to these lung diseases because the immune system in the lung is no longer strong enough to protect from infection and damage, but, it had been unclear why the immune system in the lung fails.

Read more...

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

COPD

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease is a broad term to define airflow limitation that is not reversible. A patient usually has a component of emphysema, chronic bronchitis or a combination of the two. Diagnosis, analysis and treatment of COPD requires a range of professional medical services; including Medical Imaging, Pathology and Lung Function testing.

Click the picture to follow the link for more information!

copd_lung

Medical Imaging

pathology

Pathology

spiro

Lung Function

 

Medical Imaging

Chest x-rays and CT scans are imaging studies that are commonly performed in patients with COPD; however, neither is required to diagnose COPD.

Chest x-rays — Plain chest x-rays have poor sensitivity for detecting COPD. COPD is identifiable on chest x-rays in only around 50% of patients with COPD.  Some features on x-rays that can be found (often in advanced disease) include:

  • Rapidly tapering vascular shadows, increased radiolucency of the lung, a flat diaphragm, and a long, narrow heart shadow on a frontal radiograph, accompanied by a flat diaphragmatic contour and an increased retrosternal airspace on a lateral radiograph. These findings are due to hyperinflation.

     

 



  • Bullae, defined as radiolucent areas larger than one centimeter in diameter and surrounded by arcuate hairline shadows. They are due to locally severe disease, and may or may not be accompanied by widespread emphysema. (See right)

 
a_ct_lung_bullae

A C.T. Scan showing Lung Bullae




  • Prominent hilar vascular shadows and encroachment of the heart shadow on the retrosternal space. The cardiac enlargement may become evident only on comparison with previous chest radiographs. These findings are due to pulmonary hypertension and cor pulmonale, which can be secondary to COPD.

 
hilarshadow

Prominent Hilar Vascular Shadows



Computerised tomography — Emphysema can often be diagnosed through computed tomography (CT), but not chronic bronchitis or asthma.  High resolution CT has an even greater sensitivity and specificity for emphysema diagnosis than normal CT or plain chest x-ray.  CT can be used to determine the location and type of emphysema (centriacinar or panacinar). CT plays an important role in evaluating emphysematous patients for lung volume reduction surgery.

Back to Top

Pathology

Arterial Blood Gases - Arterial blood gases are a blood test using blood taken from an artery, most commonly drawn from the wrist. Thie blood test can reveal mild or moderate hypoxemia without hypercapnia in patients with mild COPD. Hypomemia is the partial pressure decrease of oxygen in blood, decreased oxygenation in the blood is a serious condition leading to blacking out, inefficient bodily function and eventually premature death. As the disease progresses, the hypoxemia becomes more severe and hypercapnia develops.  Hypercapnia is where there is a high level of carbon dioxide in the blood, this usually causes a reflex causing increased respiration to increase oxygen and decrease carbon dioxide levels.. Hypercapnia occurs with increasing frequency as the forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) falls below one litre, the amount of air exhaled in one second. Blood gas abnormalities worsen during acute exacerbations and may also worsen during exercise and sleep.

Lung Function

Spirometry is the "Gold Standard" in diagnostic testing of COPD. Spirometry is a very simple test and measure inhalation and exhalation volumes of a patients breath. In COPD FEV1/FVC ratio should be below 0.7. This figure is determined from a vast number of studies which have tested lung function in healthy patient and then compared the results to patients confirmed to have COPD. The studies will compare data on sexes, ages and various other demographic variables to identify a range of "normal" functioning.

 

  • The patient with COPD has reduced peak expiratory flow, and severely decreased flows at 25%, 50% and 75% of vital capacity compared with the normal range (vertical bars), and shows minimal response to bronchodilator (BD). By comparison, the patient with chronic asthma shows incomplete, but substantial, reversibility of expiratory flow limitation across the range of vital capacity. After BD the forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) was within the normal range (82% predicted). Absolute and per cent predicted values for FEV1 and forced vital capacity (FVC) before and after BD are shown for each patient.

lungfunction;

The Wesley Lung Function Laboratory offers state-of-the-art lung function testing, including spirometry. More information on the Lab, lung function testing, lung conditions and our services can be found HERE.

Alternatively you can download our Educational Brochure about COPD below:

pcopd
   

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (722KB)


Click HERE to download a referral form, these can be used by patients and doctors.

© copyright 2010 | All Rights Reserved | Web Design Brisbane by iFactory