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Sleep Medicine

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A recent study has shown that adaptive servoventilation (ASV) may be harmful in heart failure patients with central sleep apnoea. The results indicated a 10% annual risk of cardiovascular death in ASV patients compared with 7.5% in the control group. The overall survival and hospitalisation rate was not different between the groups.

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Researchers find that having sleep apnea while pregnant could make the baby prone to metabolic disease as an adult. The study suggests that reoccurring oxygen deprivation, during pregnancy causes long-term changes in the offspring's liver's ability to maintain blood glucose level.

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Symptoms of depression and insomnia are the strongest predictors of having frequent nightmares, a new study concludes. A nightmare disorder may occur when repeated nightmares cause distress or impairment in social or occupational functioning.

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Navigational brain cells that help sense direction are as electrically active during deep sleep as they are during wake time, scientists have discovered. Such information could be useful in treating navigational problems associated with Alzheimer's disease and other neurological disorders.

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A team of neuropsychologists at Saarland University have shown that even a brief sleep of 45 to 60 minutes can significantly improve retention of learned material in memory

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People exposed to prolonged periods of shortened sleep have significant increases in blood pressure during nighttime hours, researchers report.

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Interstitial Lung Disease

What is INterstitial lung disease?

Interstitial lung disease is a name that covers a group of lung conditions that cause chronic breathlessness.  The most common type of ILD is idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF).  The major problem with ILD is inflammation of the lung tissue leading to scarring (fibrosis) of the air sacs (alveoli) which interferes with the ability of the lungs to deliver oxygen to the body.

Interstitial lung disease is a name that covers a group of lung conditions that cause chronic breathlessness.  The most common type of ILD is idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF).The major problem with ILD is inflammation of the lung tissue leading to scarring (fibrosis) of the air sacs (alveoli) which interferes with the ability of the lungs to deliver oxygen to the body.

What are the symptoms of interstitial lung disease?

Breathlessness on exertion and occasionally a dry cough are the most common symptoms of interstitial lung disease.  It is uncommon for people to develop breathlessness at rest, chest pain or to have a productive cough.

causes of INTERSTITIAL LUNG DISEASE

Most interstitial lung diseases are caused by the body’s own inflammation and repair system.  Some ILD’s are caused by widespread disease in the body such as Sarcoidosis, rheumatoid arthritis and scleroderma.  ILD can be caused by viral infection, drugs, radiation and occupational hazards. 

Viral infections can sometimes cause interstitial lung disease.  Bacterial infections include pneumonia and fungal infections.

Occupations hazards include – asbestos, coal dust, cotton dust, sand (silica) dust.

Quite a few drugs taken for other diseases have side-effects that can damage the lung.  Some of these drugs include bleomycin, methotrexate and amiodarone. 

Radiation – some people who received radiation for breast or lung cancer can show signs of lung damage long after they receive the radiation treatment.  The severity of the lung disease may include how much or how long your lung was exposed to radiation, and whether there was any underlying lung disease.

how does the doctor diagnose Interstitial lung disease?

There are many different types of ILD and they are often difficult to distinguish between.  Usually the doctor will initially order at least some if not all of the following tests:

  1. Chest x-ray 
  2. Lung function testing
  3. Blood tests
  4. Computed Tomography (CT scan).
  5. Bronchoscopy

treatment of interstitial lung disease 

Treatment can involve a range of drugs depending on your type of interstitial lung disease. 

Medication

Drugs such as corticosteroids can help to reduce inflammation, azathioprine is a cytotoxic normally used to prevent organ rejection after transplantation and acetylcisteine which is a type of antioxidant. 

Oxygen Therapy

Oxygen therapy may be prescribed by your doctor to increase the amount of oxygen circulating through your blood. 

Pulmonary Rehabilitation

Pulmonary rehabilitation may also be of some help to people to improve daily function.  This type of program focuses on teaching you how to breath more efficiently, how to exercise for your disease, education and nutritional information to improve quality of life. 

 complications OF INTERSTITIAL LUNG DISEASE 

Scar tissue formation in your lungs can lead to a series of life-threatening complications, including:


Low blood oxygen levels (hypoxemia)

Because interstitial lung disease reduces the amount of oxygen you take in and the amount that enters your bloodstream, you're likely to develop lower than normal blood oxygen levels. Lack of oxygen can severely disrupt your body's basic functioning.

High blood pressure in your lungs (pulmonary hypertension)

Unlike systemic high blood pressure, this condition affects only the arteries in your lungs. It begins when scar tissue restricts the smallest blood vessels, limiting blood flow in your lungs. This in turn raises pressure within the pulmonary arteries. Pulmonary hypertension is a serious illness that becomes progressively worse.

Right-sided heart failure (cor pulmonale)

 This serious condition occurs when your heart's lower right chamber (right ventricle) — which is less muscular than the left — has to pump harder than usual to move blood through obstructed pulmonary arteries. Eventually the right ventricle fails from the extra strain.

Respiratory failure
In the end stage of chronic interstitial lung disease, respiratory failure occurs when severely low blood oxygen levels along with rising pressures in the pulmonary arteries cause heart failure.

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