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Long the stuff of science fiction, the disembodied 'brain in a jar' is providing science fact for researchers, who by studying the whole brains of fruit flies are discovering the inner mechanisms of jet lag.  Researchers present the first real-time imaging of intact circadian neural networks and demonstrate how light shifts disrupt biological clocks.

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Popular non-prescription and prescription medications, including the active ingredient in Benadryl, have been linked to increased risk of developing dementia by a study published in a top-tier medical journal.

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“WHEN SLEEP IS SOUND, HEALTH AND HAPPINESS ABOUND” is the slogan for World Sleep Day 2015 taking place worldwide on March 13th, 2015. Sound sleep is a treasured function and one of the pillars of health, along with a balanced diet and adequate exercise. When sleep fails, health declines. Poor sleep and bad health decrease the quality of life and take happiness away.

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TSGQ registered nurse and polysomnographic technician Travis Bell joined 612 ABC radio presenter Kelly Higgins-Devine to discuss sleep disorders on 2nd February 2015.

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Scientists have found that that activation of cholinergic neurons - those that release the neurotransmitter acetylcholine -- in two brain stem structures can induce REM sleep in an animal model. Better understanding of mechanisms that control different sleep states is essential to improved treatment of sleep disorders.

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Going to bed early could help individuals avoid repetitive negative thinking, according to a recent study. According to the authors, repetitive negative thinking is "defined as an abstract, perseverative, negative focus on one's problems and experiences that is difficult to control."

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Cancer survivors at risk of PTSD: Scars remain long after the physical wounds have healed.

1 in 2 Australians will be diagnosed with cancer by the age of 85, with more than 60% of cancer patients surviving more than five years after diagnosis.  This makes Australia one of the best places in the world to be diagnosed with cancer; follow up support however may not be being optimally received.  According to a recent US study the hidden psychological scars caused by the diagnosis of cancer can leave scaring akin to that inflicted by war, with the impact in some cases lasting for years.  Given these facts it is vital that medical practitioners and networks of support are put in place to ensure survivors continue to obtain adequate medical care.

ptsdcancer1 Cancer care must include the psychological as well as the biological.  According to Sophia Smith, lead researcher of the Duke Cancer Institute, one in ten cancer survivors stated that they were still plagued by symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder, more than a decade after being diagnosed with the disease.  Symptoms include avoiding situations related to the trauma, being continuously plagued by thoughts about cancer and its treatment and feeling emotionally numb towards friends and relatives.  The psychological and mental shock of having a life-threatening disease, of receiving treatment and living with the repeated threats to one’s body and life are traumatic.  Because the cancer experience involves so many traumatic events, it is much more difficult to single out one event as a trigger of stress than it is for other traumas such as war or rape.

 PTSD in cancer survivors may be expressed in the following specific behaviours:

  • Reliving the cancer experience in nightmares or flashbacks and by continuously thinking about it.
  • Avoiding places, events and people connected to the cancer experience.
  • Being continuously overexcited, fearful, irritable and unable to sleep.

 

ptsdcancer2Given these symptoms it is not surprising that one in ten patients also said they avoided thinking about their cancer and one in twenty said they steered clear of situations or activities that reminded them of the disease, highlighting an obvious issue with the potential for avoidance of vital medical care and follow up care.  It is important that cancer survivors receive information about the possible psychological effects of their cancer experience and early treatment of symptoms of PTSD.

The study, published in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, surveyed 566 patients with non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma for PTSD symptoms and found that an estimated one in twelve had full-blown PTSD with many more presenting with one or more symptoms. Over half of the patients had no PTSD symptoms 13 years after their diagnosis however in 37% symptoms had remained or worsened.

Although PTSD does not affect the majority of cancer survivors, it is vital that medical practicioners, support networks and survivors themselves, are aware of the signs symptoms and the impact that this disease may continue to hold.  Routine check-ups should include discussions on both biological and psychological health.  Cancer survivors and there families should be involved in long-term monitoring.

ptsdcancer3

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder

http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/supportivecare/post-traumatic-stress/Patient/page6

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